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Astaxanthin
What is Astaxanthin?

It is a compound in high purity with natural extraction from marine algae, krill, salmon, shrimps, and lobsters. It is a clinically studied ingredient that facilitates safe anti-inflammatory activity that supports the health of joints, heart, metabolism, liver and healthy aging.

Astaxanthin is generally Recognized as Safe (“GRAS”) as a food substance according to U.S. FDA regulations and has undergone extensive toxicity testing by third parties and us with no clinically meaningful issues even at extremely high doses.

How is Astaxanthin good for your health?
Comparison of the Antioxidant Effects of Astaxanthin1
800
times more than Coenzyme Q10
550
times more than Tea Polyphenols
500
times more than Vitamin E
100
times more than Lycopene
65
times more than Vitamin C
54
times more than β-carotene
6 Benefits of Puerfons Astaxanthin
Over 50 clinical and experimental studies and more than 1500 scientific articles supports the benefits of this new generation of natural yet most powerful antioxidant:
Support cardiovascular health
  • Reduce triglycerides (mainly constituted of natural fats and oils)
  • Normalize lipid profiles while boosting beneficial, good HDL-cholesterol2,3 to lower the risk of heart disease
  • Improves the stability of blood vessel structure by decreasing macrophage infiltration and apoptosis.4
  • Boosts mitochondrial energy delivery, which helps the heart muscle contract more efficiently to enhance capillary blood flow.5
Relieve joint discomfort
  • Prevent inflammation-induced illness or pain
  • Inhibit chronic inflammation
  • Reduce rheumatoid arthritis pain
  • Improve connective tissues
  • Enhance muscle endurance and resilience
Slow Brain Aging
  • Protect brain tissue17
  • Improve cognitive test battery (assess key cognitive abilities including attention, concentration, verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, working memory and executive function) and Groton Maze Learning Test (GMLT) score in healthy middle-aged and elderly subjects with age-related forgetfulness.6,7
Strengthen the immune system
  • Protect innate immune system by increasing the numbers and activity of white blood cells and natural killer cells against invaders8,9,10
  • Prevent diseases caused by inflammation (overactive immune responses)11
Relieve eye fatigue & sour
  • Alleviate the tension of eyes’ ciliary muscles
  • Protects retinal cells against damages caused by oxidative stress12,13
  • Reduces the area of destructive new blood vessel growth on retinas14,15
Radiance skin from within
  • Protect your skin from oxidation damage for a brighter complexion16,17,18
  • Inhibit free radical that trigger skin sagging and wrinkles to increase skin elasticity19,20,21,22
Where do we get Astaxanthin?
Citation
  1. Nishida Y., Yamashita E., Miki W. (2007). Quenching activities of common hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants against singlet oxygen using chemiluminescence detection system. Carotenoid Science, 11,16–20.
  2. Yoshida H, Yanai H, Ito K, et al. Administration of natural astaxanthin increases serum HDL-cholesterol and adiponectin in subjects with mild hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis. 2010 Apr;209(2):520-3.
  3. Yang Y, Seo JM, Nguyen A, et al. Astaxanthin-rich extract from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis lowers plasma lipid concentrations and enhances antioxidant defense in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. J Nutr. 2011 Sep;141(9):1611-7.
  4. Li W, Hellsten A, Jacobsson LS, Blomqvist HM, Olsson AG, Yuan XM. Alpha-tocopherol and astaxanthin decrease macrophage infiltration, apoptosis and vulnerability in atheroma of hyperlipidaemic rabbits. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2004 Nov;37(5):969-78.
  5. Nakao R, Nelson OL, Park JS, Mathison BD, Thompson PA, Chew BP. Effect of astaxanthin supplementation on inflammation and cardiac function in BALB/c mice. Anticancer Res. 2010 Jul;30(7):2721-5.
  6. Satoh A, Tsuji S, Okada Y, et al. Preliminary clinical evaluation of toxicity and efficacy of a new astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2009 May;44(3):280-4.
  7. Katagiri M, Satoh A, Tsuji S, Shirasawa T. Effects of astaxanthin-rich Haematococcus pluvialis extract on cognitive function: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2012 Sep;51(2):102-7.
  8. Nakao R, Nelson OL, Park JS, Mathison BD, Thompson PA, Chew BP. Effect of dietary astaxanthin at different stages of mammary tumor initiation in BALB/c mice. Anticancer Res. 2010 Jun;30(6):2171-5.
  9. Chew BP, Mathison BD, Hayek MG, Massimino S, Reinhart GA, Park JS. Dietary astaxanthin enhances immune response in dogs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011 Apr 15;140(3-4):199-206.
  10. Park JS, Mathison BD, Hayek MG, Massimino S, Reinhart GA, Chew BP. Astaxanthin stimulates cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in cats. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011 Dec 15;144(3-4):455-61.
  11. Chew BP, Park JS. Carotenoid action on the immune response. J Nutr. 2004 Jan;134(1):257S-61S.
  12. Izumi-Nagai K, Nagai N, Ohgami K, et al. Inhibition of choroidal neovascularization with an anti-inflammatory carotenoid astaxanthin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Apr;49(4):1679-85.
  13. Nakajima Y, Inokuchi Y, Shimazawa M, Otsubo K, Ishibashi T, Hara H. Astaxanthin, a dietary carotenoid, protects retinal cells against oxidative stress in-vitro and in mice in-vivo. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;60(10):1365-74.
  14. Izumi-Nagai K, Nagai N, Ohgami K, et al. Inhibition of choroidal neovascularization with an anti-inflammatory carotenoid astaxanthin. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Apr;49(4):1679-85.
  15. Nakajima Y, Inokuchi Y, Shimazawa M, Otsubo K, Ishibashi T, Hara H. Astaxanthin, a dietary carotenoid, protects retinal cells against oxidative stress in-vitro and in mice in-vivo. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008 Oct;60(10):1365-74.
  16. Lyons NM, O’Brien NM. Modulatory effects of an algal extract containing astaxanthin on UVA-irradiated cells in culture. J Dermatol Sci. 2002 Oct;30(1):73-84.
  17. Terazawa S, Nakajima H, Shingo M, Niwano T, Imokawa G. Astaxanthin attenuates the UVB-induced secretion of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-8 in human keratinocytes by interrupting MSK1 phosphorylation in a ROS depletion- independent manner. Exp Dermatol. 2012 Jul;21 Suppl 1:11-7.
  18. Anunciato TP, da Rocha Filho PA. Carotenoids and polyphenols in nutricosmetics, nutraceuticals, and cosmeceuticals. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2012 Mar;11(1):51-4.
  19. Lyons NM, O’Brien NM. Modulatory effects of an algal extract containing astaxanthin on UVA-irradiated cells in culture. J Dermatol Sci. 2002 Oct;30(1):73-84.
  20. Kidd P. Astaxanthin, cell membrane nutrient with diverse clinical benefits and anti-aging potential. Altern Med Rev. 2011 Dec;16(4):355-64
  21. Martinez A, Rodriguez-Girones MA, Barbosa A, Costas M. Donator acceptor map for carotenoids, melatonin and vitamins. J Phys Chem A. 2008 Sep 25;112(38):9037-42.
  22. Suganuma K, Nakajima H, Ohtsuki M, Imokawa G. Astaxanthin attenuates the UVA-induced up-regulation of matrix- metalloproteinase-1 and skin fibroblast elastase in human dermal fibroblasts. J Dermatol Sci. 2010 May;58(2):136-42.

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